Los linfocitos B y las inmunodeficiencias primarias

Gabriela López-Herrera

Resumen


Las inmunodeficiencias primarias de anticuerpos representan las enfermedades genéticas del sistema inmunitario más frecuentes y las primeras en ser reconocidas durante la historia de la inmunología. Los anticuerpos se reconocieron como parte de la respuesta inmunitaria humoral desde hace más de un siglo, tiempo después de su descubrimiento se reconoció la primera inmunodeficiencia primaria de anticuerpos: la agammaglobulinemia, seguida por la inmunodeficiencia común variable y el síndrome de hiper-IgM. Los descubrimientos subsecuentes en la historia de la inmunología facilitaron el entendimiento de la patología de estas enfermedades; por ejemplo, el descubrimiento de los linfocitos B, de las células B inmaduras en médula ósea, de la señalización del receptor de antígeno en estas células, entre muchos otros mecanismos celulares y moleculares. Las inmunodeficiencias humorales se han estudiado ampliamente y también han apoyado los avances científicos para la comprensión de los mecanismos inmunológicos que tienen lugar en nuestro organismo. Esta revisión documental pretende revisar los hallazgos relevantes en la historia del linfocito B y su conexión con el descubrimiento de nuevas inmunodeficiencias primarias de anticuerpos con el objetivo de mostrar que la generación del conocimiento científico tiene una aplicación directa en el entendimiento de los mecanismos moleculares que se ven afectados en este tipo de defectos.

Palabras clave


inmunodeficiencias primarias de anticuerpos; enfermedades genéticas del sistema inmunitario; agammaglobulinemia; linfocitos B

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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29262/ram.v63i1.139

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