Los exosomas de las células presentadoras de antígeno y su papel en la regulación de las respuestas inmunológicas

José Luis Maravillas-Montero, Ismael Martínez-Cortés

Resumen


Las células liberan biomoléculas de diversa naturaleza a su entorno para comunicarse con las células vecinas. Además de dichas moléculas, secretan también elementos más complejos como las vesículas; estructuras compuestas por bicapas lipídicas con proteínas transmembranales que encierran un contenido hidrofílico. Los exosomas son un subtipo pequeño de estas vesículas (de 30 a 150 nm), producidos por una amplia variedad de tipos celulares incluyendo las neuronas, células tumorales, células epiteliales y células del sistema inmunológico. De entre estas últimas, las células presentadoras de antígeno se han caracterizado como productoras de exosomas con contenido variable, tanto en condiciones de reposo como en aquellas que derivan de su estimulación o maduración. En los últimos años el estudio de los exosomas ha aumentado debido a que se ha demostrado que dichas vesículas poseen propiedades inmunomoduladoras, razón por la que ostentan un gran potencial en aplicaciones de diagnóstico y desarrollo de terapias en diferentes patologías con componentes inflamatorios.


Palabras clave


Célula presentadora de antígeno; Exosoma; Inmunomodulación; Inmunoterapia; Biomarcador

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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29262/ram.v64i4.285

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