Prevalencia de autorreporte de alergia al látex y factores asociados en trabajadores de la salud

Martín Bedolla-Barajas, María de la Luz Machuca-Rincón, Jaime Morales-Romero, Nicole Macriz-Romero, Ileana María Madrigal-Beas, Martín Robles-Figueroa, Tonatiuh Ramses Bedolla-Pulido, Tania González-Mendoza

Resumen


Antecedentes: pocas veces ha sido estudiada la prevalencia de alergia al látex en personal de la salud en México.

Objetivo: determinar la prevalencia de autorreporte de alergia al látex y los factores asociados en trabajadores de la salud.

Métodos: estudio trasversal de 1292 trabajadores de la salud de un hospital de segundo nivel, a quienes se les aplicó un cuestionario estructurado para identificar alergia al látex, historia personal y familiar de atopia, exposición a guantes de látex y antecedente de cirugías. La búsqueda de asociaciones entre variables se realizó mediante regresión logística. Se calcularon razones de momios (RM) e intervalo de confianza a 95 % (IC 95 %)

Resultados: la relación mujer:hombre fue de 2.4:1. Edad media de 38.4 ± 11.6 años. La prevalencia de alergia al látex fue de 9.7 %, IC 95 %, 8.1-11.3 %. No hubo diferencia estadística por área laboral (p = 0.508). Los factores asociados con la alergia al látex fueron sexo femenino (RM = 1.68; IC 95 %, 1.03-2.73), historia personal de atopia (RM = 4.82; IC 95 %, 3.19-7.26), historia familiar de dermatitis atópica (RM = 4.33; IC 95 %: 1.20-4.41) e historia de alergia a frutos (RM = 2.30; IC 95 %, 2.62-7.14).

Conclusiones: hasta 10 % de los trabajadores de la salud podría presentar alergia al látex; los principales factores asociados fueron sexo femenino, atopia personal o familiar y alergia a frutos.


Palabras clave


Hipersensibilidad al látex; Látex; Factores de riesgo

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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29262/ram.v64i4.289

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