Preguntas comunes en alergias. Enfoque práctico para el diagnóstico y manejo en atención primaria

Jorge Sánchez, Andrés Sánchez, Ricardo Cardona

Resumen


Las alergias son enfermedades con diferentes manifestaciones clínicas, presentes en 20 a 40 % de la población general. Debido a que comparten un mismo mecanismo, en muchas ocasiones se presentan varios procesos de este tipo en una misma persona, generando numerosos síntomas y costos económicos importantes para el paciente y su familia. Actualmente, el manejo médico de estas enfermedades está enfocado en tres puntos principales: identificar y evitar el agente causal, control de los síntomas agudos mediante tratamiento farmacológico y generación de tolerancia con inmunomodulación o la desensibilización. Sin embargo, debido a los diferentes mecanismos subyacentes, es necesario realizar diferentes aproximaciones diagnósticas, las cuales pueden transformarse en un verdadero reto para el médico tratante. Adicionalmente, en ocasiones el paciente lleva a cabo restricciones y tratamientos innecesarios, limitando sus actividades diarias, modificando su dieta y afectando de forma directa su calidad de vida. Se realiza una revisión orientada a dar respuesta a diferentes inquietudes comunes que resultan de la consulta de la práctica diaria.

 


Palabras clave


Asma; Alergia; Atopia; Inmunoglobulina; Mascotas; Rinitis; Sensibilización

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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29262/ram.v65i3.309

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