Enfermedad respiratoria exacerbada por aspirina. Revisión a partir de casos clínicos

Karen Estefanía Hernández-Moreno, Ricardo Cardona-Villa

Resumen


La enfermedad respiratoria exacerbada por aspirina comprende un conjunto de signos y síntomas que involucran principalmente la vía aérea superior e inferior posterior al consumo de inhibidores de la enzima ciclooxigenasa. Las reacciones adversas que se presentan no se consideran una alergia y son comunes a todos los antiinflamatorios no esteroideos, por lo que la reactividad cruzada entre estos es común. La descripción de tres casos clínicos con diferentes situaciones sirve para revisar aspectos clave de la enfermedad como la epidemiologia, fisiopatología, manifestaciones clínicas, diagnóstico y manejo. El adecuado diagnóstico y educación en el uso o eliminación de los diferentes AINE es fundamental, al igual que la disposición de opciones analgésicas alternativas, comprobadas mediante pruebas de provocación. El manejo de la enfermedad respiratoria exacerbada por aspirina incluye procedimientos quirúrgicos para el control de los pólipos nasales, tratamiento farmacológico para el control del asma y desensibilización con aspirina en individuos seleccionados.


Palabras clave


Reacción de hipersensibilidad; Enzima ciclooxigenasa; Antinflamatorio no esteroideo; Rinosinusitis crónica; Asma; Pólipos nasales; Desensibilización a la aspirina

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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29262/ram.v65i1.315

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