Results and limitations of epidemiologic studies about Food allergy. Focus in tropical countries.

Jorge Sánchez, Andres Sánchez

Resumen


La alergia y la atopia alimentaria es consecuencia de respuestas inmunes mala adaptativas a antígenos comunes y por lo demás inocuos provenientes de los alimentos. La alergia alimentaria (FA) ocurre con frecuencia en niños menores de tres años de edad (3-15%), pero también en personas mayores (6-8%). La FA puede ser mediada por la inmunoglobulina E o mecanismos celulares y puede presentarse con una amplia variedad de síntomas en la piel, el tracto respiratorio y gastrointestinal. Debido a su creciente frecuencia, las reacciones adversas a los alimentos (AFR por sus siglas en ingles) han sido objeto de un extenso estudio, especialmente en América del Norte y Europa, sin embargo pocos estudios se han realizado en otras zonas como Sur América, África y Asia. La variedad de alimentos y métodos de preparación son parte de la identidad cultural de cada población, por lo que los principales alimentos causantes de síntomas varían entre las diferentes regiones especialmente entre las poblaciones localizadas en el trópico y en el sub-trópico. En este artículo se revisa la información disponible sobre la epidemiología de la sensibilización a los alimentos y las alergias alimentarias en regiones tropicales y se exploran los diferentes datos epidemiológicos de esta región teniendo en cuenta los principales alimentos implicados, el mecanismo inmunológico subyacente y los síntomas clínicos asociados. Adicionalmente, identificamos las posibles limitaciones y preguntas que surgen de los estudios realizados en los países del trópico, lo que ayuda a generar objetivos para futuras investigaciones en la región. 


Palabras clave


Alergia, atopia, dermatitis, epidemiología, alimentos, trópico.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29262/ram.v65i1.340

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