Factores de riesgo para mal control de asma en adultos

Juan Carlos Fernández de Córdova-Aguirre, Andrea Aída Velasco-Medina, César Urquiza, Karol Andrea Guzmán-Guillén, Guillermo Velázquez-Sámano


Antecedentes: Estudios en niños han identificado factores asociados con la falta de control del asma. En adultos no están bien definidos.

Objetivo: Identificar los factores relacionados con la falta de control del asma en adultos.

Métodos: Se incluyeron adultos con asma clasificados como controlados, parcialmente controlados y no controlados según los criterios de la Global Initiative for Asthma.

Resultados: Se incluyeron 200 pacientes (75.5 % mujeres), edad promedio de 38.4 ± 11.93 años. Cien pacientes con asma controlada y 100 con asma no controlada y parcialmente controlada; 35 (88.2 %) con persistencia leve, 14 (10 %) con persistencia moderada y 97 (1.8 %) con persistencia grave; en estrés se encontró RM = 0.41 (IC 95 % = 0.23-0.75), p = 0.03; en tabaquismo actual y activo, RM = 4.23 (IC 95 % = 1.35-13.2), p = 0.007; y en uso correcto de inhaladores, RM = 0.36 (IC 95 % = 0.13-0.97), p = 0.031. Los pacientes no tuvieron contacto con peluches ni alfombras.

Conclusiones: Se observó asociación con tabaquismo actual activo y dermatitis atópica. Como factores de protección se identificó niveles normales de eosinófilos en sangre, uso correcto de inhaladores, VEF1 > 80 %, ausencia de estrés y de contacto con alfombras y peluches.

Palabras clave

Asma; Adultos; GINA

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29262/ram.v66i1.557

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