Influencia de la ansiedad y depresión sobre el control del asma en pacientes ecuatorianos. Estudio piloto

Iván Chérrez-Ojeda, Emanuel Vanegas, Miguel Félix, Fanny Jiménez, Valeria Mata, José Alfredo Cano

Resumen


Antecedentes: El nivel de control del asma en países latinoamericanos sigue siendo pobre y no alcanza los objetivos establecidos por las guías internacionales. Las razones son desconocidas.

Objetivo: Explorar la frecuencia de ansiedad y depresión en los pacientes con asma y sus posibles asociaciones en el control del asma.

Métodos: Estudio transversal en pacientes con asma en Guayaquil, Ecuador. Se empleó chi cuadrada para evaluar la asociación entre ansiedad o depresión y las variables demográficas. Se valoró la correlación entre la prueba de control de asma y la escala hospitalaria de ansiedad y depresión mediante tau-b de Kendall.

Resultados: De 73 pacientes, 55 (80.9%) eran mujeres y 50 (69.4%) tenían nivel educativo bajo; 49 (67.1%) tuvieron asma no controlada (p = 0.005). Pocos pacientes presentaron síntomas de ansiedad (2.7%) y depresión (1.4%) (p = 0.000). Los factores asociados con mayor proporción de ansiedad y depresión fueron edad ≤ 60 años, sexo femenino y asma no controlada. No hubo correlación significativa entre el control del asma y la puntuación de ansiedad o depresión.

Conclusión: Numerosos pacientes asmáticos no tienen control adecuado de su enfermedad y los trastornos de ansiedad o depresión parecen influir poco en el control de la enfermedad.


Palabras clave


Asthma; Anxiety; Depression; Asthma control

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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29262/ram.v66i3.571

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