Alergia al maní en adultos mexicanos con enfermedades respiratorias alérgicas: prevalencia y manifestaciones clínicas

Dante Daniel Hernández-Colín, Eunice Fregoso-Zúñiga, Jaime Morales-Romero, Tonantzin Isis Bedolla-Pulido, Aleyda Carolina Barajas-Serrano, Angie Bedolla-Pulido, Martín Bedolla-Barajas

Resumen


Antecedentes: La alergia al cacahuate en adultos con enfermedades respiratorias alérgicas pocas veces ha sido estudiada en México.

Objetivo: Establecer la prevalencia de alergia al cacahuate en un grupo de adultos con asma o rinitis alérgica; también se describen los síntomas asociados con la alergia al cacahuate.

Métodos: Se realizó estudio transversal en el que analizaron los datos correspondientes a 257 pacientes con enfermedades respiratorias alérgicas, asma o rinitis alérgica, con edad igual o mayor a 16 años; los pacientes fueron reclutados consecutivamente. La alergia al cacahuate se determinó por una prueba cutánea positiva al cacahuate y a través de una entrevista estandarizada. Se estimaron intervalos de confianza (IC) a 95 % para proporciones.

Resultados: De los pacientes incluidos, 18 estuvieron sensibilizados al cacahuate (7.0 %, IC 95 % = 4.4-10.9), siete de ellos fueron considerados alérgicos al cacahuate, para una prevalencia de 2.7% (IC 95%: 1.2% - 5.6%). En los pacientes con alergia al cacahuate, los síntomas predominantes fueron los orales, principalmente el prurito en la faringe y en el paladar, seguidos de edema de los labios; entre las molestias respiratorias sobresalieron los estornudos y la rinorrea y, al final, los síntomas cutáneos. No se documentaron reacciones sistémicas al cacahuate.

Conclusión: En nuestro estudio, la alergia al cacahuate en adultos con enfermedades respiratorias alérgicas no fue infrecuente.


Palabras clave


Alergia al cacahuate; Sensibilización; Adultos

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29262/ram.v66i3.619

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