Alergia a la proteína de la leche de vaca o intolerancia a lactosa: un estudio transversal en estudiantes universitarios

Victoria Domínguez-García, Miriam V. Flores-Merino, Jaime Morales-Romero, Angie Bedolla-Pulido, Juan Mariscal-Castro, Martín Bedolla-Barajas

Resumen


Antecedentes: El origen étnico y la zona geográfica influyen en la frecuencia de la alergia a la proteína de leche de vaca (APLV) y de intolerancia a la lactosa. Faltan datos epidemiológicos en población no pediátrica.

Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de APLV e intolerancia a la lactosa en estudiantes universitarios.

Métodos: Estudio transversal de 1200 estudiantes de 18 a 25 años. Se aplicó cuestionario estructurado para identificar manifestaciones clínicas desencadenadas por la ingesta de leche de vaca y fueron categorizadas como relacionadas con APLV o intolerancia a la lactosa.

Resultados: 30 estudiantes cubrieron criterios para APLV (prevalencia de 2.5 %; IC 95 % = 1.7-3.6) y 128 para intolerancia a la lactosa (prevalencia de 10.7 %, IC 95 % = 9.0-12.5). Los estudiantes con APLV tuvieron mayor frecuencia de historia personal de alergia a alimentos y alergia a ácaros del polvo casero, comparados con los estudiantes con intolerancia a la lactosa. El prurito oral y las molestias cutáneas y respiratorias predominaron en la APLV. El cólico abdominal y las flatulencias predominaron en la intolerancia a la lactosa.

Conclusiones: La intolerancia a la lactosa fue más frecuente que la APLV; se observó en uno de cada 10 estudiantes y la APLV en uno de cada 400.


Palabras clave


Hipersensibilidad a la leche; Intolerancia a la lactosa; Estudiantes

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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29262/ram.v66i4.640

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