El niño alérgico en la escuela. ¿Qué es lo que se necesita saber?

Autores/as

  • Marilyn Urrutia-Pereira Universidade Federal do Pampa, Programa Infantil de Prevenção da Asma, Uruguaiana RS
  • Dirceu Solé Universidad Federal de São Paulo, Departamento de Pediatría, División de Alergia, Inmunología Clínica y Reumatología, São Paulo

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.29262/ram.v63i3.168

Palabras clave:

Enfermedades alérgicas, Niño, Adolescente, Instituciones académicas

Resumen

La alergia es una enfermedad multisistémica que en los niños se presenta a menudo con la coexistencia de diversas manifestaciones clínicas que causan gran impacto en la calidad de vida y en el desempeño académico, debido a los trastornos del sueño derivados de la misma enfermedad o del tratamiento, así como al absentismo al que pueden verse obligados los niños. Debido al tiempo que estos pasan en las escuelas existe la posibilidad de que las reacciones alérgicas ocurran por primera vez en esas instalaciones, donde se ha comprobado la falta de conocimientos del personal sobre cómo proceder en situaciones de emergencia por crisis de alergias. La acción cooperativa entre los equipos de salud, la comunidad, los padres y las autoridades escolares es esencial para asegurar que en la escuela se pueda prevenir, reconocer y garantizar un acceso rápido a los servicios de emergencia (en caso sea necesario) y protocolos de tratamiento de las reacciones alérgicas, permitiendo así que los niños alérgicos estén más protegidos dentro del ambiente escolar, que principalmente en ellos debe ser considerado como una extensión del entorno del hogar y un brazo importante en la correcta gestión para obtener el control de la enfermedad.

Citas

World Allergy Organization. Pawankar R, Canonica GW, Holgate ST, Lockey RF. WAO White Book on Allergy 2011-2012: Executive Summary. USA: WAO; 2011. Disponible en: http://www.worldallergy.org/publications/wao_white_book.pdf

Muraro A, Clark A, Beyer K, Borrego LM, Borres M, Lodrup Carlsen KC, et al. The management of the allergic child at school: EAACI/ GA2LEN Task Force on the allergic child at school. Allergy. 2010;65(6):681-689. doi: 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2010.02343.x

Wheeler L, Buckley R, Gerald LB, Merkle S, Morrison TA. Working with schools to improve pediatric asthma management. Pediatr Asthma Allergy Immunol. 2009;22:197-206. doi: 10.1089/pai.2009.0023

Rullo VE, Rizzo MC, Arruda LK, Solé D, Naspitz CK. Daycare centers and schools as sources of exposure to mites, cockroach, and endotoxin in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2002;110(4):582-588.

Oeder S, Jorres RA, Weichenmeier I, Pusch G, Schober W, Pfab F, et al. Airborne indoor perticles from schools are more toxic than outdoor particles. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2012;47(5):575-582. doi: 10.1165/rcmb.2012-0139OC

Polloni L, Lazzarotto F, Toniolo A, Ducolin G, Muraro A. What do school personnel know, think and feel about food allergies? Clin Transl Allergy. 2013;3(1):39. doi: 10.1186/2045-7022-3-39. doi: 10.1186/2045-7022-3-39

Ercan H, Ozen A, Karatepe H, Berber M, Cengizlier R. Primary school teachers’ knowledge about and attitudes toward anaphylaxis. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2012;23(5):428-32. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-3038.2012.01307.x

Saranz R, Lozano A, Mariño A, Boudet R, Sarraquigne MP, Cáceres ME, et al. Recommendations for the management of the child with allergic diseases at school. Arch Argent Pediatr. 2015;113(3):276-87. doi: 10.5546/aap.2015.276

Jauregui J, Mullol J, Dávila I, Ferrer M, Bartra J, del Cuvillo A, et al. Allergic rhinitis and school performance. J Investing Allergol Clin Immunol. 2009;19(1):32-39.

Petry C, Pereira MU, Pitrez PM, Jones MH, Stein RT. The prevalence of symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing in Brazilian schoolchildren. J Pediatr. 2008;84(2):123-129. doi: 10.2223/JPED.1770

Bousquet J, Khaltaev N, Cruz AA, Denburg J,Fokkens WJ, Togias A, et al. Allergic rhinitis and its impact on asthma (ARIA) 2008. Allergy. 2008 Apr;63 Suppl 86:8-160. doi: 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2007.01620.x.

Church MK, Maurer M, Simons FE, Bindslev-Jensen C, van Cauwenberge P, Bousquet J, et al. Risk of first-generation H1- antihistamines: a GA2LEN position paper. Allergy. 2010;65:459-466. doi: 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2009.02325.x

American Lung Association Epidemiology and Statistics Unit Research and Program Services Division. Trends in asthma morbidity and mortality. New York: American Lung Association; 2012. Disponible en: http://www.lung.org/assets/documents/research/asthma-trend-report.pdf

Taras H, Potts-Datema W. Childhood asthma and student performance at school. J Sch Health 2005;75(8):296-312. doi: 10.1111/j.1746-1561.2005.00041.x

Moonie S, Sterling DA, Figgs LW, Castro M. The relationship between school absence, academic performance, and asthma status. J Sch Health. 2008;78(3):140-148. doi: 10.1111/j.1746-1561.2007.00276.x

Urrutia-Pereira M, Avila JBG, Solé D. Programa Infantil de Prevenção de Asma (PIPA): a propósito de um programa de atenção especializada a crianças com sibilância/asma. J Bras Pneumol. 2015;41(5):1-6

Estrategies for Addresing Asthma within a Coordinated School Health Program. CDC 2006. Disponible en: http://www.cdc.gov/HealthyYouth/asthma/pdf/strategies.pdf

American Lung Association. Asthma-friendly schools iniciative. Disponible en: http://www.lung.org/lung-disease/asthma/creating-asthma-friendly-environments/asthma-in-schools/asthma-fr

Global Initiative for Asthma. [Sitio web]. Global strategy for Asthma management and prevention. Disponible en: http://www.ginasthma.org/local/uploads/files/GINA_Report_2015_Aug11.pdf

Draaisma E, Garcia-Marco L, Mallol J, Solé D, Pérez-Fernandez V, Brand PLP and the EISL Study Group. A multinational study to compare prevalence of atopic dermatitis in the first year of life. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2015;26(4):359-366. doi: 10.1111/pai.12388.

Alvarenga TMM, Caldeira AP. Quality of life in pediatric patients with atopic dermatitis. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2009;85(5):415-420. doi: 10.2223/JPED.1924.

Sánchez-Borges M, Asero R, Ansotegui IJ, Baiardini I, Bernstein JA, Canonica GW, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of urticaria and angioedema: a worldwide perspective. World Allergy Organ J. 2012;5(11):125-147. doi: 10.1097/WOX.0b013e3182758d6c

Koinis-Mitchell D, Craig T, Estebam CA, Klein RB. Sleep and allergies disease: A summary of the literature and future directions for research. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;130 (6):1275-1281. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2012.06.026

Lewis-Jones S. Quality of life and Childhood atopic dermatitis: the misery of living with childhood eczema. Int J Clin Pract. 2006;60(8):984-992. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-1241.2006.01047.x

Ahrens B, Staab D. Extended implementation of educational program for atopic dermatitis in childhood. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2015;26(3):190-6. doi: 10.1111/pai.12358.

Shemesh E, Annunziato RA, Ambrose MA, Ravid NL, Mullarkey C, Rubes M, et al. Child and parental reports of bullying in a consecutive sample of children with food allergy. Pediatrics. 2013;131(1):e10-e17. doi: 10.1542/peds.2012-1180.

Pistiner M, Devore CD. The role of pediatricians in school food allergy mamagement. Pediatr Am. 2013;42(8):334-340. doi: 10.3928/00904481-20130723-14

McIntyre CL, Sheetz AH, Carroll CR, Young MC. Administration of epinefrine for life-threatening allergic reactions in school settings. Pediatrics. 2005:116:1134-1140. doi: 10.1542/peds.2004-1475

Sclar DA, Lieberman PL. Anaphylaxis: underdiagnosed, underreported, and undertreated. Am J Med. 2014;127(1 Suppl):S1-S5. doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2013.09.007

Simons FE, Ebisawa M, Sanchez-Borges M, Thong BY, Worm M, Tanno LK, et al. 2015 update of the evidence base: World Allergy Organization anaphylaxis guidelines. World Allergy Organ J. 2015;8(1):32. doi: 10.1186/s40413-015-0080-1

Muraro A, Werfel T, Hoffmann-Sommergruber K, Roberts G, Beyer K, Bindslev- Jensen C, et al. EAACI Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines: diagnosis and management of food allergy. Allergy. 2014;69(8):1008-1025

Muraro A, Agache I, Clark A, Sheikh A, Roberts G, Akdis CA, et al. EAACI Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines: managing patients with food allergy in the community. Allergy. 2014;69(8):1046-1057. doi: 10.1111/all.12429

Jarvinen M.K. and Celestin J. Anaphylaxis avoidance and management: educating patients and their caregivers. J Asthma Allergy. 2014;7:95-104. doi: 10.2147/JAA.S48611.

Rankin KE1, Sheikh A. Serious shortcomings in the management of children with anaphylaxis in Scottish schools. PLoS Med. 2006; 3(8):e326. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030326

Polloni L, Baldi I, Lazzarotto F, Bonaguro R, Toniolo A, Celegato N, et al. School personnel’s self-efficacy in managing food allergy and anaphylaxis. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2016;27(4):356-360. doi: 10.1111/pai.12550.

Council on School Health. Policy Statement- Guidance for the Administration of Medication in School. Pediatrics. 2009;124(4):1244-1251. doi: 10.1542/peds.2009-1953

Bózzola CM, Saranz RJ, Lozano A, Cáceres ME, Sarraquigne P, Mariño AI, et al. [Update on anaphylactic shock treatment recommendations: what’s new in the use of epinephrine?] Arch Argent Pediatr. 2015;113(1):81-87. doi: 10.5546/aap.2015.81

Sociedad Brasileira de Pediatría. Ref.: Ofício PRM/RP/TC/CD/966/2014 – PP nº 1.34.010.000095/2014-12. Rio de Janeiro, 2014, Sep 30. Disponible en: http://www.sbp.com.br/src/uploads/2015/02/Adrenalina_Auto-Injetavel_Resposta_MinisterioPublico2014.pdf

Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente [Sitio web]. Disponible en http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/LEIS/L8069.htm

World Health Organization. [Sitio web]. Declaration of Alma-Ata, 1978. Disponible en: http://www.euro.who.int/en/publications/policy-documents/declaration-of-alma-ata,-1978

Ministério da Educação. Brasil. [Sitio web]. Programa Saúde na Escola. Disponible en: http://portal.mec.gov.br/programa-saude-da-escola/apresentacao?id=16795

Ministério da Saúde. Secretaria de Atenção à Saúde. Brasil. Departamento de Atenção Básica. Saúde na Escola/Ministério da Saúde 2009; Brasilia. (Caderno de Atenção Básica n:24) http://bvsms.saude.gov.br/bvs/publicacoes/cadernos_atencao_basica_24.pdf

Pistiner M, Devore CD, Schoessler S. School Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Management for the Pediatrician-Extending the Medical Home with Critical Collaborations. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2015;62(6):1425-1439. doi: 10.1016/j.pcl.2015.07.016

Publicado

2016-08-27

Número

Sección

Artículos de revisión