Repercusión de la contaminación del aire en la aparición de asma


  • Jorge Sánchez Universidad de Antioquia, Grupo de Alergología Clínica y Experimental, Medellín
  • Luis Caraballo Instituto de Investigaciones Inmunológicas, Universidad de Cartagena, Cartagena


Palabras clave:

aire, contaminación, coadyuvante, alergeno, asma, estrés oxidativo, inflamación


La contaminación del aire influye en el origen y la evolución de las enfermedades respiratorias. El incremento en la frecuencia que ha tenido el asma en los últimos años se asocia con el aumento de los contaminantes atmosféricos y es secundario a la liberación de gases y pequeñas partículas producidas a partir de la combustión de derivados del petróleo, humo de cigarrillo, etcétera. Se conocen algunos mecanismos acerca de cómo estos contaminantes pueden influir en el asma y otras enfermedades alérgicas: 1) al actuar como irritantes en las células alveolares o epiteliales, 2) por su acción coadyuvante en los alergenos en el proceso inflamatorio y 3) por mecanismos epigenéticos. En esta revisión trataremos los mecanismos fisiopatológicos por los que los contaminantes del aire se convierten en factores de riesgo de asma y otras enfermedades alérgicas.

Biografía del autor/a

Jorge Sánchez, Universidad de Antioquia, Grupo de Alergología Clínica y Experimental, Medellín

Magíster en Inmunología, Universidad de Cartagena. Especialista en Alergología, Universidad de Antioquia. Profesor Dpto Pediatria, Posgrado Alergología Universidad de Antioquia. Subdirector grupo GACE, Universidad de Antioquia. Gerente de proyectos, Investigación Clínica, FUNDEMEB


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