Inmunopatología de la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica

Nora Ernestina Martínez Aguilar, María Eugenia Vargas Camaño, Rogelio Ramsés Hernández Pliego, Genny Margarita Chaia Semerena, María del Rosario Pérez Chavira

Resumen


La enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC) es una enfermedad común, prevenible y tratable que presenta una fisiopatología compleja y un proceso inmunopatológico aún más complicado. El objetivo de esta revisión fue analizar los aspectos inmunopatológicos de la EPOC, para lo cual se llevó a una cabo una pesquisa bibliográfica de los documentos más relevantes indexados en la base de datos PubMed durante los últimos 10 años. Diversos aspectos pudieron concluirse: en la inmunopatología de la EPOC existen cambios inflamatorios, inmunológicos y no inmunológicos con un desequilibrio en el estrés oxidativo, así como alteraciones en la relación proteasas/antiproteasas debidas a efectos genéticos, epigenéticos, ambientales directos e indirectos. La EPOC produce daño tisular irreversible e inflamación crónica con alteración de la reparación tisular que induce obstrucción crónica de la vía aérea, bronquitis, enfisema y daño sistémico. Las comorbilidades resultantes más comunes son enfermedad cardiovascular, síndrome metabólico, osteoporosis, depresión, disfunción músculo esquelética, incremento de la edad biológica, cáncer pulmonar y otros tipos de neoplasias. En la concepción de la EPOC es indispensable reconocer que es una enfermedad no transmisible y prevenible.


Palabras clave


Enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica; Inflamación

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