Sensibilización IgE y las condiciones sociodemográficas como determinantes en la gravedad del asma

Rodrigo Gaviria, Jaime Ocampo, Julián Londoño, Víctor Calvo, Ricardo Cardona, Jorge Sánchez

Resumen


Antecedentes: en Latinoamérica existen pocos datos acerca de los factores que influyen en el control y la gravedad del asma.

Objetivo: describir la asociación entre la sensibilización IgE a alérgenos intradomiciliarios y las condiciones de vivienda en la gravedad del asma.

Método: se evaluó la sensibilización a aeroalérgenos mediante la realización de la prueba de escarificación y los datos sociodemográficos en una población entre 6 y 14 años de edad con diagnóstico de asma. El control del asma se midió de acuerdo con los resultados espirométricos y a la aplicación del Asthma Control Test, la gravedad y el control de los síntomas según la guía GINA.

Resultados: se incluyeron 150 pacientes residentes del Valle de Aburrá, Colombia. La mediana de edad de los participantes fue de 11 años, 95 (63.3 %) de sexo masculino. El 92 % de los pacientes residía en el área urbana. La sensibilización a ácaros fue la más prevalente, tanto en el grupo de pacientes controlados como no controlados. La sensibilización a cucaracha y algunas condiciones de pobreza fueron factores determinantes para la gravedad de asma.

Conclusión: las condiciones de pobreza parecen favorecer el desarrollo de asma grave y a su vez la sensibilización IgE a cucaracha. Esta sensibilización podría servir como biomarcador de gravedad.


Palabras clave


Asma; Sensibilización; Gravedad; Alérgenos; Ácaros

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29262/ram.v64i4.291

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