Alergia a alimentos en adultos con enfermedades respiratorias alérgicas: prevalencia y manifestaciones clínicas

Tonatiuh Ramses Bedolla-Pulido, Martín Bedolla-Barajas, Benjamín Uribe-Cota, Tania González-Mendoza, Jaime Morales-Romero, Juan Mariscal-Castro

Resumen


Introducción

La alergia a alimentos se considera un problema típico de la población pediátrica, sin embargo, cada día los adultos se ven afectados con mayor frecuencia. 

Objetivo

Determinar la prevalencia de alergia a los alimentos en pacientes con rinitis alérgica y asma; así como los alimentos y los síntomas más relacionados con este problema.

Métodos 

A través de un estudio transversal, se analizaron los datos de 257 adultos con asma o rinitis alérgica. La información relacionada con la alergia a los alimentos, se obtuvo a través deuna entrevista estandarizada. Se calcularon intervalos de confianza (IC) a 95% para proporciones.

Resultados 

La prevalencia de alergia a alimentos fue 17.5% (IC 95%: 13.3% - 22.6%). Soja, camarón, almendra, aguacate y cacahuate fueron los alimentos que principalmente provocaron molestias. La mayoría de los pacientes fueron alérgicos a un alimento 35.6%, a dos alimentos fueron 17.8% y a 3 alimentos fueron 17.8%. Las manifestaciones más frecuentes de alergia a alimentos fueron las orales (62.2%), prurito en la faringe, la lengua y el paladar; las respiratorias (26.7%), disnea y estornudos; y las cutáneas (26.7%), comezón y ronchas. 

Conclusiones 

La alergia a alimentos en adultos con asma o rinitis alérgica es un problema frecuente. Los síntomas orales son la principal molestia en este tipo de pacientes y principalmente están producidos por la soja.


Palabras clave


alergia a alimentos; adulto; asma; rinitis alérgica.

Referencias


Kumar R, Kumari D, Srivastava P, et al. Identification of IgE-mediated food allergy and allergens in older children and adults with asthma and allergic rhinitis. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci. 2010; 52:217-24.

Rentzos G, Johanson L, Sjölander S, et al. Self-reported adverse reactions and IgE sensitization to common foods in adults with asthma. Clin Transl Allergy. 2015; 5:25.

Inam M, Shafique RH, Roohi N, et al. Prevalence of sensitization to food allergens and challenge proven food allergy in patients visiting allergy centers in Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan. Springerplus. 2016; 5:1330.

Burney PG, Potts J, Kummeling I, et al. The prevalence and distribution of food sensitization in European adults. Allergy. 2014; 69:365-71.

Ramesh M, Lieberman JA. Adult-onset food allergies. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2017; 119:111-9.

James JM. Respiratory manifestations of food allergy. Pediatr 2003; 111:1625-30.

Penard-Morand C, Raherison C, Kopferschmitt C, et al. Prevalence of food allergy and its relationship to asthma and allergic rhinitis in schoolchildren. Allergy 2005; 60:1165-71.

Patelis A, Alving K, Middelveld R, et al. IgE sensitisation to food allergens and airborne allergens in relation to biomarkers of type 2 inflammation in asthma. Clin Exp Allergy. 2018. doi: 10.1111/cea.13165.

Silva LA, Silva AF, Ribeiro ÂC, et al. Adult Food Allergy Prevalence: Reducing Questionnaire Bias. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2016; 171:261-4.

Lee SH, Ban GY, Jeong K, et al. A Retrospective Study of Korean Adults With Food Allergy: Differences in Phenotypes and Causes. Allergy Asthma Immunol Res. 2017; 9:534-9.

Bedolla-Barajas M, Bedolla-Pulido TR, Camacho-Peña AS, et al. Food hypersensitivity in mexican adults at 18 to 50 years of age: a questionnaire survey. Allergy Asthma Immunol Res. 2014; 6:511-6.

vanKampen V, de Blay F, Folletti I, et al. EAACI position paper: skin prick testing in the diagnosis of occupational type I allergies. Allergy. 2013; 68: 580-4.

Sicherer SH, Muñoz-Furlong A, Godbold JH, et al. US prevalence of self-reported peanut, tree nut, and sesame allergy: 11-year follow-up. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2010; 125:1322-6.

Larenas-Linnemann D, Salas-Hernández J, Vázquez-García JC, et al. Guía Mexicana del Asma 2017. Rev Alerg Mex. 2017; 64 Supl 1:s11-s128.

Brożek JL, Bousquet J, Agache I, et al. Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) guidelines-2016 revision. J Allergy ClinImmunol. 2017; 140:950-58.

Osterballe M, Mortz CG, Hansen TK, et al. The prevalence of food hypersensitivity in young adults. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2009;20:686-92.

Puente-Fernández C, Maya-Hernández RL, Flores-Merino MV, et al. Self-reported prevalence and risk factors associated with food hypersensitivity in Mexican young adults. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2016; 116:523-7.

Bedolla-Barajas M, Bedolla-Pulido TR, et al. Prevalence of Peanut, Tree Nut, Sesame, and Seafood Allergy in Mexican Adults. Rev Invest Clin. 2015; 67:379-86.

Domínguez-García MV, Flores-Merino MV, Puente-Fernández C, et al. Self-reported prevalence of clinical features of allergy to nuts and seeds, and seafood in university students. Asia Pac Allergy. 2018; 8:e19.

Bedolla-Barajas M, Alcalá-Padilla G, Morales-Romero J, et al. Peanut allergy in Mexican children: what is the effect of age at first consumption? Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2016; 15:53-61.

Cuesta-Herranz J, Lázaro M, Figueredo E, et al Allergy to plant-derived fresh foods in a birch- and ragweed-free area. Clin Exp Allergy. 2000; 30:1411-6.

Gotoda H, Maguchi S, Kawahara H, et al. Springtime pollinosis and oral allergy syndrome in Sapporo. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2001; 28 Suppl: S49-52.

Rodríguez-Mireles KA, Gaspar-López A, López-Rocha EG, et al. Oral allergy syndrome in adults of a third level hospital. Rev Alerg Mex. 2014; 61:65-72. Spanish.

Bedolla-Barajas M, Bedolla-Pulido TR, Flores-Merino MV, et al. Oral allergy syndrome amongst young Mexicans: prevalence and associated factors. Eur Ann Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018. doi: 10.23822/EurAnnACI.1764-1489.59.

Asero R, Fernández-Rivas M, Knulst AC, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge in adults in everyday clinical practice: a reappraisal of their limitations and real indications. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009; 9:379-85.

Zivanovic M, Atanasković-Marković M, Medjo, et al. Evaluation of Food Allergy in Children by Skin Prick Tests with Commercial Extracts and Fresh Foods, Specific IgE and, Open Oral Food Challenge-Our Five Years Experience in Food Allergy Work-up. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2017; 16:127-32.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29262/ram.v65i1.400

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.


Licencia de Creative Commons
Este obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial 4.0 Internacional.