Asma ocupacional

María Guadalupe Rico-Rosillo, Julio César Cambray-Gutiérrez, Gloria Bertha Vega-Robledo

Resumen


El asma ocupacional es la forma más común de enfermedad pulmonar causada por factores que se atribuyen a un ambiente laboral específico en países industrializados. Causa limitación variable del flujo aéreo e hiperrespuesta de las vías aéreas debido al contacto con agentes específicos presentes en un ambiente de trabajo y no a estímulos encontrados fuera de este lugar. Se reconoce cada vez con más frecuencia y muchos agentes son capaces de causar asma ocupacional por diferentes mecanismos fisiopatológicos. Se conocen más de 400 agentes causantes de asma ocupacional y cada año se detectan nuevos desencadenantes. Numerosos factores contribuyen a la patogénesis de asma ocupacional inducida químicamente, incluidos mecanismos inmunológicos, no inmunológicos, de daño epitelial, remodelación de las vías aéreas, estrés oxidativo, inflamación neurogénica y factores genéticos. Entre los factores de riesgo de asma ocupacional están: la atopia, el tabaquismo y factores genéticos. El diagnóstico se basa en la historia clínica del paciente, pruebas cutáneas, inmunológicas y estudios funcionales. El tratamiento principal es la remoción del trabajador del sitio de exposición tan pronto como sea posible. El avance en el conocimiento de la patogénesis del asma ocupacional influirá de manera importante en la prevención y el tratamiento de esta enfermedad.


Palabras clave


asma; ocupacional; inducida por irritantes; síndrome de disfunción de las vías aéreas; exacerbada por el trabajo

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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29262/ram.v62i1.59

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