Alergia a medicamentos: aspectos fundamentales en el diagnóstico y tratamiento. Reporte de grupo del Colegio Mexicano de Inmunología Clínica y Alergia
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Alergia a medicamentos
reacciones adversas a medicamentos
reacciones de hipersensibilidad

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Alergia a medicamentos: aspectos fundamentales en el diagnóstico y tratamiento. Reporte de grupo del Colegio Mexicano de Inmunología Clínica y Alergia. (2023). Revista Alergia México, 69(4), 195-213. https://doi.org/10.29262/ram.v69i4.1181

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Antecedentes: Cualquier sustancia prescrita en el tratamiento de algún padecimiento es capaz de producir eventos dañinos o desagradables, y se denominan reacciones adversas a medicamentos. Estas reacciones se originan por mecanismos inmunológicos y no inmunológicos.

Objetivos: Describir los mecanismos inmunológicos de las reacciones de hipersensibilidad a medicamentos, epidemiologia, factores de riesgo, clasificación, manifestaciones clínicas, diagnóstico, tratamiento y pronóstico.

Métodos: Se revisó la bibliografía actualizada, en inglés y español, asociada con reacciones de hipersensibilidad a medicamentos en las principales bases de datos. 

Resultados: Se describen los términos para definir las reacciones adversas y de hipersensibilidad a medicamentos, su clasificación y manifestaciones clínicas, métodos diagnósticos actuales y en estudio, algoritmos de tratamiento y pronóstico de los medicamentos más frecuentemente prescritos y con mayor prevalencia de eventos adversos reportados.

Conclusión: Las reacciones adversas a medicamentos representan un reto, con una fisiopatología compleja y no del todo comprendida. Su abordaje requiere un enfoque cuidadoso, porque no todos los fármacos cuentan con pruebas validadas para establecer el diagnóstico y tratamiento específico. Antes de indicar cualquier medicamento debe considerarse la gravedad de la enfermedad, disponibilidad de otros tratamientos y riesgos potenciales de sufrir eventos adversos.

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Referencias

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