Factores comunes e inductores de inflamación en asma y obesidad

Autores/as

  • Gloria Bertha Vega-Robledo Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Medicina, Unidad de Medicina Experimental, Ciudad de México
  • Rodrigo Huerta-Gutiérrez de Velasco Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Medicina, Ciudad de México
  • María Guadalupe Rico-Rosillo Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Medicina, División de Investigación, Ciudad de México

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.29262/ram.v63i1.153

Palabras clave:

asma, obesidad, inflamación, adipocinas, hipoxia

Resumen

La incidencia de asma y obesidad está en aumento, por lo que se han catalogado como problemas de salud pública. Los datos epidemiológicos sugieren una relación entre ellas y se ha detectado una asociación entre el índice de masa corporal y la función pulmonar. Diversos estudios demuestran una correlación directa entre este índice y el asma. Mediante la búsqueda de referencias en bases de datos médicos de artículos publicados en revistas indizadas, con las palabras clave asma y obesidad: patogénesis, inflamación, adipocinas, hipoxia, nutrición, embarazo, este artículo profundiza en el conocimiento de los elementos básicos que interrelacionan el asma con la obesidad. Se encontró que la asociación existente entre el índice de masa corporal y el asma es más evidente en el sexo femenino. El asma y la obesidad pueden estar influidas por elementos genéticos y programación fetal. A su vez, la obesidad puede incidir en el asma por diversos mecanismos, como los mecánicos, hormonales o inflamatorios. La coincidencia existente entre varios inductores y elementos que exacerban a estas enfermedades, así como en algunas vías moleculares, ponen de manifiesto una relación potencial entre ambas afecciones.

Biografía del autor/a

Gloria Bertha Vega-Robledo, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Medicina, Unidad de Medicina Experimental, Ciudad de México

Dra. en C. Unidad de Medicina Experimental, Facultad de Medicina.

Rodrigo Huerta-Gutiérrez de Velasco, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Medicina, Ciudad de México

Estudiante de Medicina, Facultad de Medicina UNAM.

María Guadalupe Rico-Rosillo, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Medicina, División de Investigación, Ciudad de México

Dra. en C. Unidad de Medicina Experimental, Facultad de Medicina.

Citas

Olaiz-Fernández G, Rivera Dommarco J, Shamah-Levy T, et al. Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición. Cuernavaca, México: Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, 2006.

Ford ES. The epidemiology of obesity and asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2005;115:897-909.

Farah CS, Kermode JA, Downie SR, et al. Obesity is a determinant of asthma control, independent of inflammation and lung mechanics. Chest 2011;140:659-666.

Tantisira KG, Weiss S. Complex interaction in complex traits: obesity and asthma. Thorax 2001;56:64-74.

Barquera S, Campos-Nonato I, Hernández-Barrera L, et al. Prevalencia de obesidad en adultos mexicanos, ENSANUT 2012. Salud Pública 2013;55:151-160.

García-Sancho C, Fernández-Plata R, Martínez-Briseño D, et al. Adult asthma in Mexico City: A population-based study. Salud Pública Mex 2012;54:425-432.

Almeida VP, Guimaraes FS, Mogo VJ, et al. Correlation between pulmonary function, posture and body composition in patients with asthma. Rev Port Pneum 2013;19:204-210.

Farah CS, Salome CM. Asthma and obesity: a known association but unknown mechanism. Respirology 2012;17:412-421.

Szczepankiewicz A, Breborowicz A, Sobkowiak P, et al. Are genes associated with energy metabolism important in asthma and BMI? J Asthma 2009;46:53-58.

Saadi A, Gao G, Li H, et al. Association study between vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and asthma in the Chinese Han population: a case-control study. BMC Med Genet 2009;10:71-77.

Takiishi T, Gysemans C, Bouillon R, et al. Vitamin D and diabetes. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2010;39:419-446.

Melen E, Himes BE, Brehm JM, et al. Analyses of shared genetic factors between asthma and obesity in children. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2010;126:631-637.

Tesse R, Schieck M, Kabesch M. Asthma and disorders: shared mechanisms and genetic pleiotropy. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2011;333:103-111.

Litonjua AA, Gold DR. Asthma and obesity: common earlylife influences in the inception of disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2008;121:1075-1084.

Patel SP, Rodriguez A, Little MP, et al. Associations between pre-pregnancy obesity and asthma symptoms in adolescents. J Epidemiol Community Health 2012;66:809-814.

Ramírez-Velez R. In utero fetal programming and its impact of health in adulthood. Endocrinol Nutr 2012;59:383-393.

Korn S, Hübner M, Jung M, et al. Severe and uncontrolled adult asthma is associated with vitamine D insufficiency and deficiency. Resp Res 2013;14:25-30.

Litonjua AA. Childhood asthma may be a consequence of vitamin D deficiency. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2009;9:202-207.

Feng L, Li JR, Yang F. Relationship of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D with obesity and inflammatory cytokines in children. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2013;15:875-879.

Allan K, Kelly FJ, Devereux G. Antioxidants and allergic disease: a case of too little or too much? Clin Exp Allergy 2010;40:370-380.

Dasarathy J, Periyalwar P, Allampati S, et al. Hypovitaminosis D is associated with increased whole body fat mass and greater severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Liver Int 2014;34:118-127.

Wassall H, Devereaux G, Seaton A, et al. Complex effects of vitamin E and vitamin C supplementation on in vitro neonatal mononuclear cell responses to allergens. Nutrients 2013;5:3337-3351.

Wu G, Chen J, Hoffman C, et al. Linking long-term dietary patterns with gut microbiol enterotypes. Science 2011;334:105-108.

Shen J, Obin MS, Zhao L. The gut microbiota, obesity and insulin resistance. Mol Aspects Med 2013;34:39-58.

Strober W. Impact of the gut microbiome on mucosal inflammation. Trends Immunol 2013;34:423-430.

Cani PD, Neyninck AM, Fava F, et al. Selective increases of bifidobacteria in gut microflora improve high-fat-dietinduced diabetes in mice through a mechanism associated with endotoxaemia. Diabetología 2007;150:2374-2383.

Karlsson C, Onnerfalt J, Xu J, et al. The microbiota of the gut in preschool children with normal and excessive body weight. Obesity 2012;20:2257-2261.

Palacios T, Coulson S, Butt H, et al. The gastrointestinal microbiota and multi-strain probiotic therapy: in children and adolescent obesity. Adv Integrative Med 2014;1:2-8.

Ly NP, Litonjua A, Gold DR, et al. Gut microbiota, probiotics, and vitamin D: Interrelated exposures influencing allergy, asthma, and obesity? J Allergy Clin Immunol 2011;127:1087-1094.

Chen Y, Dales R, Tang M, et al. Obesity may increase the incidence of asthma in women but not in men: longitudinal observation from the Canadian National Population Health Surveys. Am J Epidemiol 2002;155:191-197.

Vega-Robledo GB, Valencia-Zavala P, Sánchez-Olivas M, et al. Asociación de obesidad y asma alérgica en adultos. Rev Alerg Méx 2012;59:173-179.

Hamano N, Terada N, Maesako K, et al. Effect of female hormones on the production of IL-4 and IL-13 from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Acta Otolaringol 1998;537:27-31.

Varraso R, Siroux V, Maccario J, et al. Epidemiological study on the genetics and environment of asthma. Asthma severity is associated with body mass index and early menarche in women. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2005;171:334-339.

Sood A, Qualls C, Li R, et al. Lean mass predicts asthma better than fat mass among females. European Resp J 2011;37:65-71.

Wang FV, Soronen J, Turpeinen U, et al. 17β-estradiol and estradiol fatty acyl esters and estrogen-converting enzyme expression in adipose tissue in obese men and women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2013;98:4923-4931.

Davis KE, Neinast MD, Sun K, et al. The sexually dimorphic role of adipose and adipocyte estrogen receptors in modulating adipose tissue expansion, inflammation and fibrosis. Mol Metab 2013;2:227-242.

D’Eon TM, Souza SC, Aronovitz M, et al. Estrogen regulation of adiposity and fuel partitioning. Evidence of genomic and non-genomic regulation of lipogenic and oxidative pathways. J Biol Chem 2005;280:35983-35991.

Holguin F, Rojas M, Brown LA, et al. Airway and plasma leptin and adiponectin in lean and obese asthmatics and controls. J Asthma 2011;48:217-223.

Sutherland ER, Goleva E, Strand M, et al. Body mass and glucocorticoid response in asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2008;178:682-687.

Giouleka P, Papatheodorou G, Lyberopoulos P, et al. Body mass index is associated with leukotriene inflammation in asthmatics. Eur J Clin Invest 2011;41:30-38.

Goleva E, Hauk PJ, Hall CF, et al. Corticosteroid-resistant asthma is associated with classical antimicrobial activation of airway macrophages. J Allergy Clin Imm 2008;122:550-559.

Barnes PJ, Adcock IM, Ito K. Histone acetylation and deacetylation: importance in inflammatory lung diseases. Eur Respir J 2005;25:552-563.

Kim SH, Sutherland ER, Gelfand EW. Is there a link between obesity and asthma? Allergy Asthma Immunol Res 2014;6:189-195.

Holgate ST. The airway epithelium is central to the pathogenesis of asthma. Allergol Int 2008;57:1-10.

Tilg H, Moschen RA. Role of adiponectin and PBEF/ visfatin as regulators of inflammation: involvement in obesity-associated diseases. Clinical Science 2008;114:275-288.

Fontana L, Eagon JC, Trujillo ME, et al. Visceral fat adipokine secretion is associated with systemic inflammation in obese humans. Diabetes 2007;36:1010-1013.

Wellen E, Fucho R, Gregor MF, et al. Coordinated regulation of nutrient and inflammatory responses by STAMP-2 is essential for metabolic homeostasis. Cell 2007;129:537-548.

Davis JE, Braucher DR, Walker-Daniels J, et al. Absence of Tlr2 protects against high-fat diet-induced inflammation and results in greater insulin-stimulated glucose transport in cultured adipocytes. J Nutr Biochem 2011;22:136-141.

De Luca C, Olefsky J. Inflammation and insulin resistance. FEBS Lett 2008;582:97-105.

Stientstra R, Tack C, Kanneganti T, et al. The inflammasome puts obesity in the danger zone. Cell Metabolism 2012;15:10-12.

Besnard AG, Guillou N, Tschopp J, et al. NLRP3 inflammasome is required in murine asthma in the absence of aluminum adjuvant. Allergy 2011;66:1047-1057.

Medina-Gómez G. Mitochondria and endocrine function of adipose tissue. Best Practice Res Clin Endocrinol Metabol 2012;26:791-804.

Trayhurn P, Wang B, Wood IS. Hypoxia in adipose tissue: a basis for the dysregulation of tissue function in obesity? Br J Nutr 2008;100:227-235.

Wood IS, de Heredia FP, Wang B, et al. Cellular hypoxia and adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity. Proc Nutr Soc 2009;68:370-377. 55. Eltzschig HK, Carmeliet P. Hypoxia and inflammation. N Engl J Med 2011;364:656-665.

Holguin F, Fitzpatrick A. Obesity, asthma, and oxidative stress. J Appl Physiol 2010;108:754-759.

Hotamisligil GS. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and the inflammatory basis of metabolic disease. Cell 2010;140:900- 917.

Cantero G, Fandos C, Valverde A, et al. The asthma associated ORMDL3 gene product regulates endoplasmic reticulum mediated calcium signaling and cellular stress. Hum Mol Genet 2010;19:111-121.

Rao S, Gil H, Na Ge X, et al. ORMDL3 promotes eosinophil trafficking an activation via regulation of integrins and CD 48. Nat Commun 2013;4:452-479.

Mekahli D, Bultynck G, Parys J, et al. Endoplasmic-reticulum calcium depletion and disease. Cold Sring Harb Perspect Biol 2011;3:a004317.

Mabalirajan U, Ghosh B. Mitochondrial dysfunction in metabolic syndrome and asthma. J Allergy (Cairo) 2013:340476. Doi: 10.1155/2013/340476.

Jaremko L, Jaremko M, Giller K, et al. Structure or the mitochondrial translocator protein in complex with a diagnostic ligand. Science 2014;343:1363-1366.

Kleinridders A, Lauritzen H, Ussar S, et al. Leptin regulation of Hsp 60 impacts hypothalamic insulin signaling. J Clin Invest 2013;123:4667-4680.

Nomiyama T, Perez-Tilve D, Ogawa D, et al. Osteopontin mediates obesity-induced adipose tissue macrophage infiltration and insulin resistance in mice. J Clin Invest 2007;117:2877-2888.

Lumeng CN, Bodzin JL, Saltiel AR. Obesity induces a phenotypic switch in adipose tissue macrophage polarization. J Clin Invest 2007;117:175-184.

Wu H, Ghosh S, Perrad XD, et al. T cell accumulation and regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted upregulation in adipose tissue in obesity. Circulation 2007;115:1029-1038.

Nishimura S, Manabe I, Nagasaki M, et al. CD8+ effector T cells contribute to macrophage recruitment and adipose tissue inflammation in obesity. Nat Med 2009;15:914-920.

Provoost S, Anaes T, VanDurme Y, et al. Decreased FoxP3 protein expression in patients with asthma. Allergy 2009;64:1539-1546.

Poglio S, De Toni-Costes F, Arnaud E, et al. Adipose tissue as a dedicated reservoir of functional mast cell progenitors. Stem Cells 2010;28:2065-2072.

Pare PD, McParland E, Seow CY. Structural basis for exaggerated airway narrowing. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2007;85:653-658.

Saraiva SA, Silva AL, Xisto DG, et al. Impact of obesity on airway and lung parenchyma remodeling in experimental chronic allergic asthma. Resp Physiol Neurobiol 2011;177:141-148.

Fuentes E, Fuentes F, Vilahuer G, et al. Mechanisms of chronic state of inflammation as mediators that link obese adipose tissue and metabolic syndrome. Mediat Inflamm 2013; doi. Org/10.1155/2013/136584.

Youssef D, Elbhedy R, Shakry D, et al. P48- Leptin, IL-4, IFNᵧ in obese asthmatic children. Clin Transl Allergy 2014;4:103. Doi: 10.1186/2045-7022-4-S1-103.

Dixon AE, Pratley RE, Forgione PM, et al. Effects of obesity and bariatric surgery on airway hyperresponsiveness, asthma control, and inflammation. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2011;128:508-515.

Shore SA, Schwartzman IN, Mellema MS, et al. Effect of leptin on allergic airway responses in mice. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2005;115:103-109.

Williams AS, Leung SY, Nath P, et al. Role of TLR2, TLR4, and MyD88 in murine ozone-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and neutrophilia. J Appl Physiol 2007;103:1189-1195.

Kim HY, Chang YJ, Subramanian S, et al. Innate lymphoid cells responding to IL-33 mediate airway hyperreactivity independently of adaptive immunity. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2012;129:216-227.

Gwang Cheon J. Natural killer T cell and pathophysiology of asthma. Korean J Pediatr 2010;53:136-145.

Kim HY, Lee HJ, Chang YJ, et al. IL-17 producing innate lymphoid cells and the NLRP-3 inflammasoma facilitate obesity-associated airway hyperrreactivity. Nat Med 2013 doi:10.1038/nm3423.

Shore SA, Terry SD, Flynt L, et al. Adiponectin attenuates allergen-induced airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in mice. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006;118:389-395.

Zhu M, Hug C, Kasahara DI, et al. Impact of adiponectin deficiency on pulmonary responses to acute ozone exposure in mice. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2010;43:487-497.

Openheimer B, Berger K, Segal L, et al. Airway dysfunction in obesity: response to voluntary restoration of end expiratory lung volume. PLOS one 2014;doi: 10.1371/journal. pone.0088015. PLoS One 2014;9:88015.

Krishnarpan Ch, Chetana S. Respiratory morbidity in obesity, beyond obstructive sleep apnea. Ann Thorac Med 2014;9:182-183.

Foster G, Poulin M, Hanly P. Intermittent hypoxia and vascular function: implications for obstructive sleep apnea. Exp Physiol 2007; 92:51-65.

Levy P, Tannisler C, Launois S, et al. Sleep apnea syndrome in 2011: current concepts and future directions. Eur Resp Rev 2011;20:134-146.

Piper AJ, Grunstein R. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome: mechanisms and management. Am J Resp Crit Care Med 2011;183:292-298.

Karnatovskaia LV, Lee AS, Bender SP, et al. Obstructive sleep apnea, obesity, and the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10:657-662.

Dixon AE, Clerisme-Beaty EM, Sugar EA, et al. Effects of obstructive sleep apnea and gastroesophageal reflux disease on asthma control in obesity. J. Asthma 2011;48:707-713.

Publicado

2016-03-01

Número

Sección

Artículos de revisión