Actualización del concepto de asma. ¿Es el asma un síndrome?

Autores/as

  • Francisco Muñoz-López Servicio de Inmunología y Alergología Pediátrica, Hospital Clinic-Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.29262/ram.v62i2.67

Palabras clave:

asma, seudoasma, fenotipos, endotipos, ejercicio, aspirina

Resumen

Diversos síntomas son comunes a los diferentes procesos que afectan el aparato respiratorio y su valoración precisa es la base para el diagnóstico correcto. Entre esos síntomas, principalmente la disnea orienta hacia el posible diagnóstico de asma. Sin embargo, el concepto de asma ha variado al estimarse la inflamación del árbol bronquial como la base patogénica del proceso, pero no hay que olvidar que la hiperreactividad bronquial sigue siendo el fundamento de las crisis de disnea. En la actualidad se distinguen diversas variantes que se han definido como fenotipos y endotipos que pueden identificar diversos procesos asmáticos o seudoasmáticos, de ahí que se plantee que el asma no es un proceso único, sino un síndrome. En todo caso, la hiperreactividad bronquial puede ser de causa genética o adquirida por la inflamación causada por el medio ambiente desfavorable, o también por ejercicio físico o por la toma de aspirina, procesos en que intervienen otros mecanismos.

Citas

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Publicado

2015-04-09

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