Sueño y sistema inmune

María Guadalupe Rico-Rosillo, Gloria Bertha Vega-Robledo

Resumen


El sueño es un proceso que ocupa la tercera parte de la vida del ser humano y resulta imprescindible para que el individuo mantenga la homeostasis del organismo. Emerge como un regulador importante del sistema inmune, ya que durante el sueño se llevan a cabo las funciones necesarias para mantener su equilibrio. Por otro lado, la reducción de sueño tiene efectos adversos que alteran el metabolismo y produce incremento en la secreción de la proteína C reactiva, interleucina (IL)-6 y factor de necrosis tumoral (TNF). Estas citocinas activan a NF-κB, por lo que la alteración en el sueño puede ser un factor de riesgo para desarrollar enfermedades inflamatorias crónicas y metabólicas. Las citocinas proinflamatorias IL-1, IL-6 y TNF aumentan el sueño de movimientos oculares no rápidos y las antiinflamatorias como IL-4 e IL-10 lo disminuyen. El sueño puede modificar la función del sistema inmune induciendo cambios en el eje hipotálamo-pituitaria-adrenal y el sistema nervioso simpático. A su vez, el ritmo circadiano de hormonas como el cortisol y la adrenalina, que descienden en la noche, favorece diferentes actividades del sistema inmune. El objetivo de la presente revisión es abordar diversos aspectos del sueño y su relación con el sistema inmune.


Palabras clave


Sueño; Privación del sueño; Citocinas; Sistema inmune; Inflamación

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29262/ram.v65i2.359

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