ESTUDIO DE SEGURIDAD EN INMUNOTERAPIA (IT): PRÁCTICA CLÍNICA EN CONSULTA DE ALERGIA.

Margarita Tomás-Pérez, Lourdes Gonzalez Cavero, Javier Dominguez-Ortega

Resumen


RESUMEN

La inmunoterapia con alérgenos específicos (IT) es el único tratamiento modificador del sistema inmunológico para la enfermedad alérgica. La seguridad es una de las limitaciones más importantes. Realizamos un estudio observacional, restrospectivo, de 1 año, evaluando las reacciones adversas presentadas durante las pautas de inicio de IT en consultas de alergia. Se recogieron datos sobre las características epidemiológicas de los pacientes, IT utilizada (extracto y composición), reacciones adversas ocurridas y el tratamiento empleado en éstas, intentando determinar posibles factores de riesgo que sugieran mayor incidencia de reacción al administrar la IT. Como conclusión, la IT administrada en pauta rash o cluster es segura. Existe mayor riesgo de presentar reacciones al utilizar extractos nativos, sin embargo éstas son locales o sistémicas leves y finalmente todos los pacientes acaban tolerándola. Aconsejamos la utilización de pautas más rápidas, ya que son seguras, que ayuden al mejor cumplimiento del tratamiento por el paciente. 

SUMMARY

Immunotherapy with specific allergens (IT) is the only immune system modifying treatment for allergic disease. Safety is one of the most important limit. We performed an observational, retrospective, 1-year study, evaluating adverse reactions presented during the initial schedules IT in allergy consultations. Data were collected about the epidemiological characteristics of the patients, type of IT (extract and composition), adverse reactions occurred and the treatment used, trying to determine possible risk factors that suggest a higher incidence of reaction during immunotherapy administration. In conclusion, rapid or cluster schedules immunotherapy managed are secure. There is a greater risk of reactions using native extracts, but these are local or mild and eventually all patients end up tolerating it. We recommend the use of faster schedules to apply the immunotherapy since are safe and can to help the patient comply with the treatment.


Palabras clave


Seguridad, inmunoterapia, alergia, reacción adversa.

Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29262/ram.v65i3.367

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