Síndrome polen-alimento. Revisión con un toque

Autores/as

  • Patricia Maria O'Farrill-Romanillos Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, Hospital Especialidades, Servicio de Alergia e Inmunología Clínica, Ciudad de México http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7186-1372
  • José Efraín Bermúdez-Marquez Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, Hospital Especialidades, Servicio de Alergia e Inmunología Clínica, Ciudad de México https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5975-4366
  • Edwin Daniel Maldonado-Domínguez Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, Hospital Especialidades, Servicio de Alergia e Inmunología Clínica, Ciudad de México https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1916-342X
  • Nancy Valeria López-Moreno Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, Hospital Especialidades, Servicio de Alergia e Inmunología Clínica, Ciudad de México https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6309-5663
  • Juan José Reyes-Aguilar Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, Hospital Especialidades, Servicio de Alergia e Inmunología Clínica, Ciudad de México https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2339-4239
  • Karen Lilian Rivera-Alvarado Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, Hospital Especialidades, Servicio de Alergia e Inmunología Clínica, Ciudad de México https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2620-0735
  • Silvia Paulina Ruiz-López Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, Hospital Especialidades, Servicio de Alergia e Inmunología Clínica, Ciudad de México https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1289-3593
  • Diana Andrea Herrera-Sánchez Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, Hospital Especialidades, Servicio de Alergia e Inmunología Clínica, Ciudad de México https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1621-6976

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.29262/ram.v69iSupl1.1018

Palabras clave:

Sindrome polen alimento, profilinas, proteínas trasportadoras de lípidos

Resumen

El síndrome polen-alimento (SPA) se caracteriza por la sensibilización alérgica a proteínas de pólenes de pastos, malezas y árboles, que producen una reacción de hipersensibilidad de tipo I, asociada a la ingesta de alimentos derivados de plantas, usualmente en forma cruda. Las familias de proteínas que más frecuentemente están asociadas son las profilinas, las PR-10 y las ns LTP; sin embargo, se ha documentado otras, como las taumatinas, isoflavonas reductasas y las B1,2 gluconasas. El síndrome prototipo es el abedul-frutas-vegetales, y de ellos el más común es el abedul-manzana, debido a que más de 70 % de los pacientes sensibilizados al abedul presentan síntomas asociados a la ingesta de alimentos derivados de plantas. Los síntomas están restringidos a la cavidad oral; sin embargo, algunos pacientes pueden presentar síntomas sistémicos, incluso anafilaxia, por lo que es importante identificar el tipo de proteína implicada, ya que de eso depende el tipo de reacción que puede presentar el paciente. Pese a todo, se considera una entidad que puede estar subdiagnosticada debido a su valoración y tratamiento complejos, debido a que el procedimiento en la mayor parte de los casos es dieta de eliminación, ya que aún no está disponible el tratamiento con inmunoterapia. El objetivo de esta revisión es describir la fisiopatología, así como los síndromes polen-alimento más comunes.

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Publicado

2022-01-08

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