Abordaje diagnóstico del asma difícil de tratar y asma grave

Autores/as

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.29262/ram.v69iSupl1.1046

Palabras clave:

Asma grave, Asma difícil de tratar, Comorbilidades en asma grave

Resumen

El asma difícil de tratar es la que no se controla a pesar de las dosis altas o medias de esteroides inhalados o la que requiere altas porciones para mantener un control adecuado de los síntomas y reducir el riesgo de exacerbaciones. Se deben tener en cuenta las fallas en la técnica del uso del inhalador, la pobre adherencia al tratamiento, el tabaquismo, las comorbilidades o el diagnóstico incorrecto. En el asma grave, a pesar de la adherencia al tratamiento con dosis optimizadas y el manejo de los factores contribuyentes, se requieren múltiples medicamentos en dosis máximas para tener un adecuado control, si no es así este no se logra. La dirección de estos pacientes implica un proceso minucioso, dados los múltiples factores que pueden influir en el mal control del asma y que pueden llevar a una inadecuada clasificación de la enfermedad, cuando en realidad puedan estar cursando con diferentes comorbilidades cuyo tratamiento puede disminuir la severidad de los síntomas del asma y modificar el pronóstico. El objetivo de esta investigación es dar a conocer el manejo de los pacientes con asma difícil de tratar y asma grave, así como las comorbilidades más frecuentes. Se realizó una búsqueda en Pubmed con el propósito de identificar las principales patologías que puedan estar presentes y, con base en la literatura, proponer un abordaje diagnóstico. Se incluyeron 100 estudios, incluidas las guías clínicas GINA, GEMA y ERS/ATS.

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2022-01-10

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