Introducción temprana de alimentos potencialmente alergénicos en pacientes pediátricos menores de seis meses de edad
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Introducción temprana de alimentos potencialmente alergénicos en pacientes pediátricos menores de seis meses de edad. (2023). Revista Alergia México, 69(4), 183-194. https://doi.org/10.29262/ram.v69i4.1132

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Objetivo: Revisar la evidencia disponible acerca de la introducción temprana de alimentos alergénicos y la posible protección en la aparición de alergia alimentaria en etapas posteriores.

Métodos: Se realizó una revisión exploratoria de ensayos clínicos aleatorizados, cuya población de estudio incluyera lactantes menores de 6 meses al momento del reclutamiento con o sin diagnóstico de alergia alimentaria. Se incluyeron como alimentos potencialmente alergénicos el huevo, cacahuate y trigo. Se consultaron las bases de datos: Medline, EBSCO, OVID, Science Direct y JSTOR (Journal Storage), Scielo, LILACS, Redalyc e Imbiomed del mes de agosto a diciembre de 2021.

Resultados: Se identificaron 429 artículos, se excluyeron 412 y el análisis final incluyó 9 estudios que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. Seis ensayos corresponden a alergia al huevo, dos al cacahuate y uno a trigo.  La reducción del riesgo de alergia alimentaria se presentó en niños con riesgo de alergia. Las reacciones adversas fueron comunes, particularmente con la introducción de huevo.

Conclusiones: No existe evidencia que la introducción temprana (< 6 meses de edad) de alimentos alergénicos reduzca el riesgo de alergia alimentaria en lactantes sin factores de riesgo.

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