Si algo puede fallar, fallará: el virus Epstein-Barr y su contención inmunitaria
−ACERCA DE LA PORTADA−  El virus Epstein-Barr (EBV) es un gamma herpes virus que afecta humanos. La infección se adquiere principalmente durante la infancia o adolescencia; se presenta de manera asintomática o como un trastorno linfoproliferativo autolimitado que no requiere atención clínica. Sin embargo, afecta a más del 95% de la población adulta mundial y corresponde a uno de los virus oncogénicos más comunes en la especie humana: en promedio, cada año se asocia con 200,000 casos de cáncer. Interesantemente, solo un pequeño porcentaje de individuos infectados desarrolla procesos malignos, normalmente hospederos inmunocomprometidos o inmunodeficientes. EBV tiene un tropismo casi exclusivo por células B y de manera general la infección conduce a un estado latente o lítico, a partir de los cuales es posible desarrollar enfermedades y complicaciones. Las células citotóxicas NK y T CD8+ son los principales agentes inmunológicos que controlan y eliminan la infección por EBV. En este contexto, variantes genéticas que comprometan el desarrollo, proliferación, diferenciación, coestimulación y/o activación de células NK y T CD8+ predisponen al desarrollo de neoplasias o trastornos linfoproliferativos. Específicamente, se ha descrito la deficiencia, haploinsuficiencia o desregulación de ciertas proteínas citoplasmáticas, receptores de membrana, ligandos y transportadores de iones que afectan la función efectora de las células citotóxicas, y resultan en las secuelas más graves por EBV. Sin duda, el conocimiento ganado en este tema seguirá contribuyendo a diagnósticos más oportunos y el desarrollo de mejores estrategias terapéuticas en la clínica.     Breve descripción de la portada: Dres. Arturo Gutiérrez Guerrero, Sara Elva Espinosa Padilla y Saúl Oswaldo Lugo Reyes.   Agradecimiento especial por la elaboración y diseño de la portada: DG. Diana Gabriela Salazar Rodríguez.
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Palabras clave

Virus Epstein-Barr
Células NK
Células T CD8+
Inmunodeficiencias primarias
Vacunas

Cómo citar

Si algo puede fallar, fallará: el virus Epstein-Barr y su contención inmunitaria. (2024). Revista Alergia México, 71(1), 29-39. https://doi.org/10.29262/ram.v71i1.1276

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Resumen

El virus Epstein-Barr es un virus gamma herpes que afecta exclusivamente a humanos; fue el primer virus oncogénico descrito y se ha relacionado con más de siete diferentes tipos de cáncer. Curiosamente, el intercambio de genes debido a infecciones virales ha permitido la evolución de los organismos celulares, favoreciendo el desarrollo de nuevas funciones y supervivencia del hospedero. El virus Epstein-Barr  comparte cientos de millones de años de coevolución con la especie humana y más del 95% de la población adulta mundial se ha infectado en algún momento de su vida. La infección se adquiere principalmente durante la infancia, y en la mayoría de los casos aparece sin ninguna manifestación grave aparente. Sin embargo, en los adolescentes y la población joven-adulta, alrededor de un 10 a 30% evolucionan a mononucleosis infecciosa. Las células NK y T CD8+ son células citotóxicas cruciales durante las respuestas antivirales y se ha demostrado que controlan y eliminan la infección por el virus Epstein-Barr. No obstante, cuando se afecta su función efectora, el desenlace puede ser fatal. El objetivo de esta revisión es describir la infección por el virus Epstein-Barr y el papel decisivo de las células NK y T CD8+ durante el control y eliminación de la infección. Además, se discuten brevemente los principales defectos genéticos que afectan a estas células y conllevan a la incapacidad para eliminar el virus. Finalmente, se resalta la necesidad de elaborar una vacuna efectiva contra el virus Epstein-Barr y cómo podrían evitarse los procesos neoplásicos y enfermedades autoinmunes.

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Referencias

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