Intolerancia alimentaria
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Palabras clave

Alergia alimentaria
Intolerancia alimentaria
Reacciones adversas no inmunológicas a alimentos
Histamina
Trastornos de la conducta alimentaria

Cómo citar

Intolerancia alimentaria. (2023). Revista Alergia México, 70(4), 265-268. https://doi.org/10.29262/ram.v70i4.1337

Resumen

El término intolerancia alimentaria se ha utilizado de manera inespecífica para definir una amplia gama de trastornos relacionados con la ingesta de alimentos. Recientemente se recomendó el uso de la expresión “reacciones adversas no inmunológicas a alimentos” (RANIAs) como una definición clínica más correcta. Los mecanismos fisiopatológicos pueden ser diversos, a veces desconocidos, y no existen pruebas diagnósticas validadas, por lo que es difícil obtener datos certeros. Las manifestaciones clínicas de las reacciones adversas no inmunológicas a alimentos afectan a más de un órgano o sistema; y los síntomas gastrointestinales (dolor, distensión abdominal, flatulencias y diarrea) son los más frecuentes. Las reacciones adversas no inmunológicas a alimentos se dividen en independientes y dependientes de factores del huésped. Los alimentos pueden contener productos químicos con actividad farmacológica y estar presentes en forma natural, como las aminas vasoactivas (histamina) y los salicilatos, o añadirse para su conservación, mejorar la apariencia o el sabor (glutamato monosódico, tartrazina, sulfitos y benzoatos). En algunos casos, este tipo de reacciones pueden ser similares, desde el punto de vista clínico, a las reacciones de hipersensibilidad. El consumo de alcohol concomitante puede empeorar los síntomas, al inhibir la degradación de la histamina y aumentar la permeabilidad intestinal. En pacientes con diagnóstico de reacciones adversas no inmunológicas por alimentos es importante descartar algunos problemas de índole psicológica: aversiones o trastornos de la conducta alimentaria. 

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Referencias

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