Epigenética, medio ambiente y asma

Autores/as

  • María Guadalupe Rico-Rosillo Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Medicina, División de Investigación, Ciudad de México
  • Gloria Bertha Vega-Robledo Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Medicina, Unidad de Medicina Experimental, Ciudad de México
  • Raúl Silva-García Unidad de Investigación Médica en Inmunología, Hospital de Pediatría, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Distrito Federal
  • Diego Oliva-Rico Unidad de Investigación Biomédica en Cáncer, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Secretaría de Salud-Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Distrito Federal

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.29262/ram.v61i2.32

Palabras clave:

asma, epigenética, acetilación, metilación

Resumen

El asma es una enfermedad inflamatoria crónica que afecta las vías respiratorias y tiene un componente genético complejo, que está mediada por la exposición a una variedad de desencadenantes ambientales. Los estudios genéticos no aclaran en su totalidad la herencia y susceptibilidad al asma. Muchas enfermedades son de origen genético; sin embargo, sólo se ha encontrado una fracción de los genes que las explican. La epigenética puede utilizarse para esclarecer las causas principales de padecimientos que son difíciles de entender, como la alergia y el asma. Estímulos externos como la nutrición, el estrés, la actividad física, la contaminación atmosférica y el consumo de tabaco y alcohol pueden silenciar o activar los genes. Al respecto, la epigenética ofrece explicaciones de cómo estos factores modifican sutilmente la herencia. Cada vez hay más evidencias que demuestran que los marcadores epigenéticos reconocidos, como la metilación del ADN, la modificación de histonas y la expresión de microRNAs están influidos por el ambiente. Esto ayuda a entender cómo muchos factores de riesgo similares a los señalados contribuyen a la aparición y herencia del asma. En esta revisión se analizan diferentes factores ambientales y su relación con los principales mecanismos epigenéticos, así como su posible influencia en la aparición del asma.

Citas

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Publicado

2014-03-31

Número

Sección

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