Alergia Alimentaria, puntos clave para la práctica clínica
Palabras clave:Food Hypersensitivity, Immunoglobulin E, Allergens
Food allergy is an immune reaction that occurs frequently in pediatric age, its prevalence is higher in industrialized countries, affecting 8% of the population, the most frequently involved foods are milk, hen’s egg, soybeans, peanuts, fish, wheat, seafood and tree nuts. Food allergy can be divided into three groups: IgE-mediated, non-IgE-mediated, and mixed food allergy. The symptoms will depend on the immunological mechanisms and can be divided into immediate or no immediate, the immediate symptoms appear in the first two hours of intake and the no immediate symptoms after the second hour and up to 72 hours. Diagnosis of food allergy requires a medical history, physical examination and laboratory tests; misdiagnosis can lead to unnecessary elimination diets. The gold standard is the double-blind placebo controlled oral food challenge. The main treatment is food restriction, the nutritional and psychological implications that this entails must be taken into account; Another treatment option is oral immunotherapy, it is recommended in patients who cannot carry out an elimination diet and it has a significant impact on quality of life.
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