Enfermedades autoimunes en pacientes con inmunodeficiencia común variable

Autores/as

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.29262/ram.v68i1.894

Palabras clave:

Autoinmunidad, Inmunodeficiencia común variable, Inmunodeficiencia primaria

Resumen

La inmunodeficiencia común variable (IDCV) es la inmunodeficiencia primaria sintomática más prevalente: se estima un caso entre 10 000 a 50 000 habitantes. Esta enfermedad heterogénea se caracteriza por disminución de las inmunoglobulinas séricas, una producción deficiente de anticuerpos específicos tras la vacunación y por infecciones bacterianas recurrentes, en particular de los tractos respiratorio y gastrointestinal. Un subgrupo de pacientes se caracteriza por manifestaciones adicionales, a menudo predominantes, de desregulación inmunitaria en lugar de inmunodeficiencia pura. Aproximadamente, 30 % de los pacientes con IDCV desarrolla autoinmunidad. La mitad de las complicaciones se puede atribuir a citopenia autoinmunitaria, pero también a otros tipos de autoinmunidad tales como enfermedades autoinmunitarias específicas de órganos, que se manifiestan a menudo como enfermedad inflamatoria: enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal, enfermedad celiaca, enfermedad pulmonar intersticial, algunas formas de artritis, vitíligo y muchas otras. Nuevos defectos monogénicos aclaran el mecanismo inmunopatológico que provoca la coincidencia de inmunodeficiencia y autoinmunidad. Las enfermedades autoinmunitarias se han convertido en el principal desafío clínico en la IDCV, con nuevas herramientas de diagnóstico, especialmente genéticas, que mejoran la comprensión de las formas variantes de desregulación inmunitaria.

Citas

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Publicado

2021-06-07

Número

Sección

Inmunología