Participación de la vitamina A en la producción de IgA secretora en el epitelio del tracto respiratorio para la potencial protección de infección por SARS-CoV-2

Autores/as

  • Francisco Javier Turrubiates-Hernández Universidad de Guadalajara, Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud, Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias Biomédicas, Guadalajara, Jalisco https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9637-168X
  • Jorge Hernández-Bello Universidad de Guadalajara, Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud, Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias Biomédicas, Guadalajara, Jalisco https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8004-1811
  • Edith Oregón-Romero Universidad de Guadalajara, Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud, Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias Biomédicas, Guadalajara, Jalisco https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6010-0837
  • Guillermo González-Estevez Universidad de Guadalajara, Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud, Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias Biomédicas, Guadalajara, Jalisco https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0244-6298
  • José Francisco Muñoz-Valle Universidad de Guadalajara, Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud, Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias Biomédicas, Jalisco https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2272-9260

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.29262/ram.v68i3.977

Palabras clave:

Vitamina A, SARS-CoV-2, Inmunoglobulina A, Retinol, COVID-19

Resumen

El SARS-CoV-2 continúa infectando a miles de personas a nivel mundial. Se ha establecido que el principal mecanismo de transmisión del SARS-CoV-2 es por vía aérea, por lo que infecta inicialmente el tracto respiratorio. Actualmente, la eficacia de los fármacos utilizados contra COVID-19 es limitada y a pesar de que los programas de inmunización han iniciado, existe una desigualdad internacional en la distribución de vacunas. En este sentido, la búsqueda de terapias coadyuvantes continúa siendo una alternativa para su investigación. La suplementación con vitamina A se ha asociado con la reducción de mortalidad por infecciones; este efecto podría ser mediado por el ácido retinoico (AR), un metabolito activo de esta vitamina, que ejerce funciones inmunomoduladoras. De acuerdo con estudios preclínicos, el AR favorece la producción de inmunoglobulina A (IgA) secretora en el tracto respiratorio. Aunado a esto, la proteína de unión a retinol se ha correlacionado con la concentración de IgA y anticuerpos neutralizantes en pacientes con influenza. Por lo tanto, la presente revisión tiene como objetivo abordar la participación de la vitamina A en la producción de la inmunoglobulina A secretora en el epitelio del tracto respiratorio para resaltar su potencial función protectora contra la infección por SARS-CoV-2.

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2021-10-12

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